BY Michael Gecan NEW YORK DAILY NEWS Wednesday, June 15, 2016, 5:01 PM
In a turbulent time, I find a measure of calm and clarity in the words of the late economist A.O. Hirschman, whose short book, “Exit, Voice and Loyalty” was published in 1970. Hirschman was born in Germany into a life of even greater turbulence than we are now experiencing. He escaped the Nazis, fought in the Spanish Civil War, served in the U.S. Army in World War II and afterwards, as a translator at the Nuremberg trials — and then went on to establish himself as a major figure in the field of economics and community development.
As a writer, he respected the complexities and varieties of the enterprises and nations he studied.
Hirschman pondered the options people have as consumers, members of voluntary associations or citizens of a republic — and defined three options available to all.
To me, they correspond to the three political figures shaping this election year.