DuPage United Decries President Trump’s Islamophobic Re-Tweets

11/30/2017, Glen Ellyn, IL -

We, the members of DuPage United, demur President Trump’s misguided demonizing of Muslims and his use of publicly-known extremist propaganda. We believe that the use of this hate-filled speech puts the lives of not only our Muslim neighbors’ at risk, but all minority groups. The rise in virulent anti-immigrant, anti-Muslim, and anti-minority messaging has already resulted in a rise in Hate Crimes, most notably against Muslims in 2016 according to the FBI.

The President’s targeting of American Muslims plays on people’s fears, biases, and prejudices. It creates visceral reactions not thoughtful considerations, promotes people’s differences, not their similarities, it demonized and reduces multi-faceted individuals to a single attribute. His words are not representative of DuPage United, nor of most Americans. This has always been a country of immigrants, and of opportunity not exclusion: “Give me your tired, your poor, your huddled masses yearning to breathe free.”

DuPage United’s Prepared and Rapid Response Team was created to act as a shield with a plan of action ready to respond to acts of hate, racism, and discrimination in DuPage County when/if they occur. We will stand with all groups that feel discrimination.

The President of the United States has a responsibility to all American citizens, to protect each, regardless of religion, race, or ethnicity. Democracy flourishes when people of different ideologies and religions engage in dialogue, putting aside their differences and working together to make their society stronger and more resilient; when the strength of our cultural similarities is more binding than the sum of our differences, when the belief in the American dream and democracy is paramount.

We acknowledge this nation’s less than stellar record in bringing people together. We have had our failures; we have also had our successes. Through our struggle we have become a pluralistic, heterogeneous society that rewards hard work and intelligence, not the accident of birth.

This is why we urge the President to stop engaging in the spreading of derisive, dividing language that sparks prejudice and anger. The long term damage from such behavior may be significant, and threaten the very nature of the American Experiment.

To become a signatory please send an email to prr@dupageunited.org with your name or your institution’s name and it will be added to the list.

Sincerely,

Benjamin Weiskopf,

Volunteer Leader, Chairman of the Prepared and Rapid Response Team

Signed:
Joe Follrath
Greg Eakins
Steve De La Rosa
Lucy Tarbour
Jeri Shaw
Mohammed Saeed
 

Fox River Valley Initiative / DuPage United Combined Assembly

DU-FRVI-August-Assembly

On Thursday, August 3, 600 citizens of DuPage and Kane Counties filled Goodwin Hall Auditorium at Benedictine University in Lisle. Representing over 40 churches and other nonprofit members of DuPage United and the Fox River Valley Initiative (FRVI), the enthusiastic group gathered at an assembly to demonstrate support for, among other things, Crisis Intervention Team training.  

Crisis Intervention Teams (CIT) are law enforcement officers trained to deal with offenders with  a mental illness or drug impairment. Rick Lathrop from FRVI announced that DuPage County had waited 18 months for the Illinois Law Enforcement Standards Training Board to award provisional approval to begin offering its CIT curriculum.  

Kane County’s CIT application was submitted July 31. Rodger Heaton, Illinois Director of Public Safety and Homeland Security, announced to the assembly his commitment to shorten the time to approve reports. When Lathrop shared that Kane County Sheriff Kramer’s budget included $40,000 for CIT training beginningin Septemberand askedwhether   approval might be granted before then, Heaton responded, “How could we possibly miss a chance to use (someone else’s)  $40,000?”

Lathrop also asked Heaton to work with both broad-based citizen groups to meet  with the Governor and his staff to find  alternatives to incarceration for those with mental illness.   Heaton reported that the Governor has charged the Criminal Justice Commission to explore how to reduce the state’s prison population safely by 25%, adding, “Someone who wants to find ways to reduce the prison population should be highly motivated to meet with you. “

Campana building in Batavia developer seeks community support

By MARK FOSTER of the Kane County Chronicle - editorial@kcchronicle.com

BATAVIA – The developer for the proposed Campana building apartment project sought community support during a public forum July 17, framing his plan as the best use for the property.

David Block of Evergreen Real Estate Group told a crowd of more than 100 people who turned out at the Congregational Church of Batavia that the 80-unit apartment plan will restore the historic building and provide much-needed affordable housing in the community.

Block said that in response to the Batavia City Council’s concerns about parking, he has increased the number of spaces in the plan to 206 from the 146 originally proposed.

“We’re trying to listen to what the council is telling us,” Block said prior to the start of the meeting.

However, even with the increase, this would still leave the proposal well short of the 301 spaces required under the city’s code, meaning Evergreen would need a modification under the city’s planned unit development ordinance.

The forum was sponsored by the Fox River Valley Initiative, a nonpartisan community action group focusing on social issues, and which is supportive of Evergreen’s plan for the Campana building.

Wayne resident Jeff Jenkins of the group said the proposal helps fulfill the need for affordable housing in the valley, would restore the landmark structure and is being proposed by a development firm with a solid track record.

Evergreen, based in Chicago, wants to use the original 1936 factory building and the north addition for the apartments, while maintaining business uses in the south and west additions. The $30 million project would include 36 one-bedroom units, 38 two-bedroom units, and six three-bedroom units.

Block told the crowd that 26 percent of Batavia households would qualify for the income-restricted apartments, and posed the rhetorical question of who would be living in the building.

“It’s your neighbors who are struggling,” Block said.

The project is expected to produce about 26 students attending Geneva schools, Block said, including around 11 attending Western Avenue Elementary School.

Evergreen will not attempt to link the Campana building to the school via sidewalks over the properties of unwilling neighbors, Block said.

Instead, Evergreen would purchase a passenger van and transport children to and from Western Avenue School every school day, Block said. He indicated later that Evergreen would be willing to commit to the arrangement as part of the development agreement with the city, if necessary.

Middle school and high school students would be entitled to school district bus service, he said.

Block further asserted that Evergreen would be willing to donate land abutting the intersection at Route 31 and Fabyan Parkway for improvements to make it safer.

Noting that the Campana project is producing concerns about traffic, Block said a residential development generates fewer vehicle movements than a commercial development.

As he had during a meeting with Batavia aldermen this spring, Block contended that the building has been underutilized for many years, is in serious need of renovations to be saved, and that the market has not come up with a viable solution.

After making his initial pitch, Block took questions from the audience. Virtually all the people identifying themselves as residents of Geneva were opposed, while Batavia residents were in favor.

A round of applause at the conclusion of the forum indicated a clear majority of those in attendance support the plan. Many people snapped up yard signs promoting approval of the project to take home with them.

The proposal is expected to come before the Batavia Plan Commission on Aug. 2.

The Campana building is listed on the National Register of Historic Places and was designated a local landmark by the city of Batavia in 2003. The building is notable for its central tower and horizontal line of glass block windows.

Evergreen would make use of low-income housing tax credits to help finance the project and offer affordable rents to tenants. Low-income households are defined as making no more than 60 percent of the median income in the local area.

Block told the crowd that Evergreen, which operates many income-restricted apartment projects, requires tenants to go through a rigorous application process, including a criminal background check.

The proposal calls for 16 market-rate apartments, with the rest being income-restricted. Block said there would be an on-site staff, and that the apartment complex would be maintained and managed to a market-rate standard.

Evergreen is expected to seek federal historic-preservation tax credits to finance some of the needed renovations, including work on the mechanical systems, roof, masonry and glass block.

Related presentation

The Fox River Valley Initiative separately has issued a news release that it will conduct a summer assembly focused, in part, on its support of affordable housing, including the Campana project, from 7 to 8:30 p.m. Aug. 3 at the Benedictine University Goodwin Hall Auditorium at 5700 College Road in Lisle. The public is invited and details are offered by Jeff Jenkins at jeff@mercyharborchurch.org and 630-659-8141. To learn more, visit facebook.com/FRVI4.

DuPage United Statement on Vandalism at Schmaltz Deli

We, the signatories below, on behalf of DuPage United, stand in solidarity with Schmaltz Delicatessen in Naperville and the Bender family, and against all acts of unlawful vandalism.  

What happened to the Jewish-owned Deli is unfortunate and should be condemned.  This is political speech in an unlawful and unproductive manner (i.e. graffiti). DuPage United stands for building relationships, fostering understanding and working on common goals.

As an umbrella organization comprising more than 30 member faith communities and associations, we see the power of having allies comprising like-minded neighbors. People join hands and work collectively on issues that affect all residents of DuPage County.  The impact of our efforts is systemic change. We invite those who’d like to build bridges and foster understanding to join us in working shoulder-to-shoulder on common causes, driven by shared values, to get to know our neighbor's up close and personal. In doing so we recognize, and celebrate, our shared humanity and core American values.                                                                   

We invite you to explore our work at www.dupageunited.org and join us for our next assembly on August 3rd, 2017, 7:00 to 8:30 p.m. Details will be posted on our website shortly.

DuPage United Member Institutions

Jericho Road Church, Wheaton, IL

First Church of Lombard, Lombard, IL - Rev Jeffrey Phillips

Rev, Eric Doolittle, North Central College Chaplain, Naperville, IL

Congregation Etz Chaim - Rabbi Ricky Kamil, Lombard, IL

Downers Grove First United Methodist Church - J. Renee Hyzy Chair: Mission, Justice and Community

The Mecca Center WillowBrook

DarusSalam Foundation, Lombard

St. Thomas the Apostle Catholic Church, Naperville

ICNA Relief

Islamic Center of Naperville

Muslim Society Inc., Glendale Heights

Rev Pamela Rumancik, Hinsdale, IL Unitarian Church of Hinsdale

St. Mark’s Episcopal Church, Glen Ellyn - The Rev. George D. Smith, The Rev. Victor Conrado

Church of the Holy Nativity, Clarendon Hills

Rev. Joe Yucha - Faith Lutheran Church, Glen Ellyn, IL

Sister Beatrice Hernandez - Wheaton Franciscan Justice ,Peace and Integrity of Creation Office Wheaton, IL

Islamic Foundation, Villa Park

Parables Community, Lombard, IL, Pastor Jeanne Davies

Islamic Foundation, Villa Park

Parables Community, Lombard, IL, Pastor Jeanne Davies

York Center Church of the Brethren, Lombard, IL

Pastor Christy Waltersdorff

Islamic Center of Kane County (ICKC)

Pastor Kevin Williams

Second Baptist Church, Wheaton IL

Rev. Seth Ethan Carey, First Congregational Church of Glen Ellyn

Ally Organizations

Nancy Oetter, Regional Coordinator, Pax Christi USA, Illinois, Woodridge, IL

Masjid Uthman, Lombard IL

Syrian Community Network, Chicago, IL

ICNA Chicago

Jeffrey R. Jenkins - Mercy Harbor Church Geneva, Illinois

The Rev. Dr. Lindsay Bates, Senior Minister - The Unitarian Universalist Society of Geneva, IL

Individuals

Naazish YarKhan, Glendale Heights, IL

Saima Azfar, Glendale heights, IL

Nadia Sheikh, Carol Stream, IL

Naureen Ahmed, Carol Stream, IL

Kashif Fakhruddin, Principal, AL-Falah Academy (Weekend School)

Azhar Mohammed, Glendale Heights, IL

Khalid Dogar

Daily Herald Letter to the Editor - DuPage now certified in crisis intervention

We commend leaders in DuPage County for making it the first jurisdiction in Illinois outside of Chicago to be certified by the state to offer Crisis Intervention Team training to law enforcement officers.

Within two years, the sheriff's department will train hundreds of officers, saving lives, protecting police, reducing costs and improving outcomes for people in mental health crisis.

In conversation with dozens of local law enforcement leaders over the last three years, DuPage United identified a dramatic chronic shortage of CIT training in the greater Chicago area, and began to work with the necessary parties. We thank Sheriff John Zuruba, Public Health Executive Director Karen Ayala, State's Attorney Robert Berlin and NAMI DuPage for their commitment to this effort.

This is a wonderful development. After decades of cuts to mental health services, police are encountering more and more people in crisis. CIT training is a proven strategy for helping police handle mental health crises in ways that are safer for police and better for citizens. By diverting people from unnecessary jail time and reducing officer injuries, this training will save taxpayers money. By interacting with well-trained, knowledgeable officers, people in mental health crisis will be less likely to end up in jail and more likely to get appropriate care.

The state certification has been a long time coming: too long, in our view. We strongly encourage the Illinois Law Enforcement Training and Standards Board to keep up the needed standards, but work the process much more quickly for other jurisdictions now seeking course approval. The more officers that are trained, the better the outcomes will be as police encounter those in mental health crisis. Lives are on the line.

Naazish YarKhan

J. Michael Solberg

DuPage United

Chicago Tribune - Non-Muslims vow to add their names to a Muslim registry. Would that help or harm?

By Heidi Stevens

President-elect Donald Trump's selection of retired Lt. Gen. Michael Flynn for national security adviser has added to a growing sense of fear that Trump's administration could implement a database to keep tabs on Muslims in America, a campaign promise made by Trump last fall.

In February, Flynn tweeted a link to a YouTube video with the message: "Fear of Muslims is RATIONAL: Please forward a link to this video so that people may learn the BASICS of Islam." Coupled with Trump's campaign talk of "a total and complete shutdown of Muslims entering the United States," the selection has many concerned that our nation will abandon some of its core values, including freedom of religion.

George Takei penned a powerful op-ed this week about his family's experience being forced into a Japanese internment camp when he was 5. "'National security' must never again be permitted to justify wholesale denial of constitutional rights and protections," Takei writes. "If it is freedom and our way of life that we fight for, our first obligation is to ensure that our own government adheres to those principles."

But how do we go about ensuring that?

On social media, I frequently see non-Muslims pledging to register themselves on a hypothetical Muslim database in a show of solidarity.

Is that feasible? Is that enough? I called a couple of experts to get their take.

"While the sentiment behind the pledge (to register) is appreciated and welcomed, the unintended effect may be to legitimize the concept of registering Americans of a particular faith," Tabassum Haleem, executive director of the Council of Islamic Organization of Greater Chicago, told me. "If the pushback against these types of nefarious initiatives is part of a larger, united campaign against the erosion of civil liberties of all Americans, it would send a loud and unequivocal message to President-elect Trump that he cannot divide and conquer the American people. That we are, indeed, stronger together."

Corey Saylor is director of the department to monitor and combat Islamophobia at the Council on American-Islamic Relations (CAIR). Saylor says a Muslim database would most likely mean a reinstatement of the National Security Entry-Exit Registration System, a controversial program launched after the 9/11 terrorist attacks that collected information, fingerprints and photographs of noncitizens entering the United States from certain (mostly majority Muslim) countries and monitored their status and movement once they arrived. It was canceled in 2011.

If a broader Muslim database is implemented for U.S. citizens, however, Saylor said his group welcomes the idea of non-Muslims adding their names.

"People being willing to register themselves if an all-inclusive Muslim registry comes up is greatly appreciated," Saylor said. "When the constitution is being challenged, it's important that everyone be willing to stand up and not just talk about it with their friends, but do something useful. Registering would be one way to do that."

We don't need to wait for a database to push back against anti-Muslim rhetoric, though.

Muslims make up less than 2 percent of the U.S. population, but Americans of all faiths are welcome to attend open mosque days and educate themselves about the faith and its practitioners.

The Council of Islamic Organizations of Greater Chicago organizes regional open-mosque days, Haleem said, and churches often hold interfaith events.

"DuPage United, a community organizing group made of churches, mosques and synagogues, started a Solidarity With Muslims campaign earlier this year with standing-room-only events," Haleem said. "The evening of Nov. 17th, nearly 650 people of all faiths gathered at the Islamic Center of Naperville. DuPage United leaders presented the work being done by their member institutions on establishing mental health crises centers, organizing resources for refugees and combating Islamophobia. Police chiefs pledged to continue to protect their citizens, regardless of their race or religion. School districts around the country are affirming policies to protect American Muslim students and other minorities against bullying."

Saylor recommends signing up to receive emails from groups that fight against religious persecution, particularly CAIR, the American Civil Liberties Union, the Southern Poverty Law Center and Amnesty International.

"These groups will ask you do things that are usually pretty simple and straightforward," Saylor said. "That takes individuals and merges them into a movement. You want to magnify your own impact by joining an organization."

Monthly donations to one or more of those organizations can help them staff lawyers for an organized pushback in the event that Americans' constitutional rights are being threatened, he said.

"We ask people to find a group that you feel is doing good work and make sure you're supporting them," Saylor said. "Not just by reading the emails, but by contributing, by showing up at meetings, by taking action."

hstevens@chicagotribune.com

Twitter @heidistevens13

DuPage United Fall Assembly - Press Release

DUPAGE UNITED

41 North Park Boulevard Ÿ Glen Ellyn, IL  60137

NOVEMBER 11, 2016

PRESS RELEASE FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE

CONTACT:

Reverend Mike Solberg, Senior Pastor, Union Church of Hinsdale msolberg@uchinsdale.org 630-590-6695

Reverend Jim Honig, Senior Pastor, Faith Lutheran Church, Glen Ellyn pastorjkh@faithonline.org (630) 469-2361

DuPage United holds assembly at Islamic Center of Naperville:

County mental health officials to answer questions, and residents of multiple religions and ethnic backgrounds pledge solidarity with one another at November 17th public meeting

On Thursday, November 17th at 7:00PM, at the Islamic Center of Naperville, 2844 W. Ogden Ave, Naperville, DuPage United will hold a public assembly asking for commitments to action from key County officials, and asking members of the diverse population of DuPage to pledge solidarity with one another and zero tolerance for hatred and xenophobia.

Through organized citizen action, DuPage United has successfully fought for better treatment for individuals with mental illness by compelling the County to establish and fund Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) training for DuPage police officers. Similar police training in cities and counties nationwide has led to significantly more efficient and effective treatment for those with mental illness while also saving money by diverting individuals from hospital emergency departments or jail into crisis centers.

At the November 17th assembly, DuPage United leaders will discuss progress toward their goal of organizing funding for the construction of crisis diversion centers to serve as cost efficient, life-saving alternatives to incarceration by providing support to families and first responders as they seek effectively respond to daily crisis situations.  DuPage County Health Department Chair, Karen Ayala and Kara Murphy of DuPage County Health Coalition will appear at the rally to answer questions about the project.

Results of the presidential election have heightened uncertainty and concern for many DuPage County residents. In February of this year, members of DuPage United responded to campaign rhetoric denigrating those of Hispanic heritage and members of the Islamic faith as well as other groups by launching the Solidarity Campaign. At the February Solidarity event, more than 800 DuPage County residents pledged to support one another as “We, the People” and not allow themselves to be divided by religion, race or ethnicity.

Since February, DuPage United leaders have expanded this campaign to include a rapid response team to address crisis situations of hatred or discrimination, and outreach and engagement of residents who are refugees. At the November 17th assembly leaders will discuss this work as well as the new challenges the Solidarity Campaign faces.

For more information on the DuPage United Fall Assembly, please visit dupageunited.org/events/.

DuPage United was founded and exists today to change systems and structures that are unjust. Affiliated with the Industrial Areas Foundation (IAF), the oldest and largest network of community organizations in the world, DuPage United builds relational power by developing institution-based leadership, building relationships within and between institutions, identifying and researching issues of mutual interest, and taking disciplined, organized action. Leaders become citizens in the fullest sense: participants in democratic decision-making and change agents for a more just society.
DuPage United is an independent, self-funding organization which receives no government money.

Mending Criminal Justice

By Reverend David K. Brawley and Michael Gecan, Industrial Areas Foundation
                  
After many weeks of stunning violence and numbing conventions, three events occurred recently in widely separated parts of the country -- a meeting of community and religious leaders in Baton Rouge with United States Attorney General Loretta Lynch in the aftermath of the two shootings there (one of an African American by local police, the second of three police officers ambushed by a killer), a gathering of 250 leaders in Kane County Illinois to discuss better training for police who deal with individuals who are mentally ill and an improved mental health system for those struggling with this illness, and an assembly of 600 unionized transit workers in Washington DC who are concerned about conditions, including safety conditions for riders and workers, in and around the nation's Capitol.  
 
Each event touched on a different aspect of the multi-faceted world of public safety, police preparation and accountability, and criminal justice. What the leaders of Industrial Areas Foundation affiliates in these areas, as well as New York, Cleveland, Baltimore, Durham, Milwaukee, Bridgeport, and Chicago, have realized is that the problems with the nation's criminal justice system are not simply political or programmatic; they are cultural.  They involve a set of overlapping and complex habits, patterns, and beliefs that cannot be solved by one leader, one policy change, or one legislative action. They require a set of interconnected and simultaneous improvements.  
 
The good news is that, over the past two years, IAF leaders have seen signs of significant improvement in many of these areas.The challenge is that the improvements have emerged slowly and have not yet hit the kind of critical mass that can generate a series of positive chain reactions.  
 
*In the Chicago metropolitan area, organizations in Kane and DuPage counties have identified the need for Crisis Intervention Training for local police, along with the creation of a robust mental health alternative to arrest and incarceration that includes crisis centers, mental health professional intervention, and longer term housing.

*These leaders have studied the extraordinary work already done by Judge Steven Leifman in Miami-Dade County. Judge Leifman has implemented a mental health alternative to jail or prison that has equipped law enforcement with the training necessary to deal effectively with those struggling with mentally illness.  His approach has provided housing and treatment options that lead to recovery. The prisoner population has decreased so dramatically -- by 35% -- that the county has closed a jail. Police officers are enthusiastic about the approach, and the community benefits in many ways from the proper treatment of those who need treatment, not incarceration.   
 
*In Cleveland, Greater Cleveland Congregations has documented that minority youth are arrested and imprisoned at far higher rates than other youth. In response, the law enforcement community has reduced the rate of arrest and incarceration for minority individuals and begun to provide them with the same alternatives and supports offered to other youth.  In Baton Rouge, leaders have conducted research that reveals an astonishing gap in police response to citizens who possess drugs -- with African Americans there 700% more likely to be arrested than whites.  In Durham, local community leaders won a precedent-setting reform requiring police to obtain written consent to search cars of motorists without probably cause and removing a police chief who refused to implement reforms that protected the rights of local residents. The two twin curses in minority communities -- over-policing (profiling, unjustified use of force, wholesale arrest and incarceration rates), alternating with under-policing (the lack of consistent and professional attention that protects the safety of the overwhelming majority of innocent residents in minority communities) -- are being systematically exposed and exorcized.
 
*At the same time, local citizens organizations are initiating the creation of meaningful relationships of mutual respect between community members and local police officers.
 
*In Baltimore, the BUILD organization has secured job commitments for Johns Hopkins Hospital and University for those returning from jail or prison, thus giving them a path back into the community and economic mainstream.
 
*In Brooklyn, St. Paul Community Baptist Church has worked closely with the District Attorney and court system to set up a Saturday court within a trusted local congregation.In one day, 700 criminal records for minor offenses were officially expunged, thus giving people a new lease on employment and other opportunities.    
 
*All across the country, IAF affiliates have recruited 101 police departments and municipalities to agree to push gun manufacturers to integrate gun safety technology into their weapons and to isolate and pressure the very small number of gun sellers that supplies weapons to criminals and killers.  

This set of changes, if implemented persistently and with good judgement, can generate a change in culture -- resulting in better, fairer, and safer outcomes for police and citizens.
 
In a world of quick fixes, theatrical performers, and media spectacles, this process of change is itself counter cultural. It depends on local institutions that are trusted by skeptical community residents. It relies on police leaders who take the time to build long-term relationships in local settings and who resist the demands for more insularity and defensiveness heard in some law enforcement quarters. It makes new demands on political leaders, who now need to make investments in training and mental health solutions that will save millions in the middle and long run but will cost more up front. And it needs the involvement and staying power of local employers -- hospitals, universities, agencies -- whose jobs are the surest guarantee of family prosperity and community stability.      
 
The leaders involved are spirited, determined, and hopeful.  They simply need more public and private sector partners willing to deepen and accelerate this culture change in every American community.

Orlando - by Reverend J Michael Solberg

The Canadian vocal group Moxie Fruvous has a song which begins:

We got a call to write a song about the war in the Gulf,

But we shouldn’t hurt anyone’s feelings.

So we tried, and gave up, cuz there was no such song,

But the trying was very revealing

As I was preparing to lead our congregation in worshiping God last Sunday morning, I read a headline that said “20 Killed in Orlando Club Shooting.”  By the time the worship service was over, someone told me the number of dead had risen to 50.

(CLICK HERE to read the rest of the article)

Exit, loyalty and voice: A frame to understand the appeal of Donald Trump, Bernie Sanders and Hillary Clinton

BY Michael Gecan NEW YORK DAILY NEWS Wednesday, June 15, 2016, 5:01 PM

In a turbulent time, I find a measure of calm and clarity in the words of the late economist A.O. Hirschman, whose short book, “Exit, Voice and Loyalty” was published in 1970. Hirschman was born in Germany into a life of even greater turbulence than we are now experiencing. He escaped the Nazis, fought in the Spanish Civil War, served in the U.S. Army in World War II and afterwards, as a translator at the Nuremberg trials — and then went on to establish himself as a major figure in the field of economics and community development.

As a writer, he respected the complexities and varieties of the enterprises and nations he studied.

Hirschman pondered the options people have as consumers, members of voluntary associations or citizens of a republic — and defined three options available to all.

To me, they correspond to the three political figures shaping this election year.

(CLICK HERE to read the rest of the article)